Monday, 29 March 2010

রেনেসাঁ

AvaywbK wk‡íi e¨wßi KviY cÂ`k kZvãxi BZvjxi †i‡bmuv| cÂ`k kZvãxi Av‡M mg¯Í wKQzB DrmM©K…Z wQ‡jv Ck¦‡ii Rb¨ , gvbyl wQ‡jv wbwgË gvÎ , GgbwK wkíPP©vi jÿ¨I wQ‡jv Ck¦‡ii K…cvjvf|

†i‡bmuv K_vwUi A_© c~bR©vMib Ges G kãwU G‡m‡Q j¨vwUb fvlv n‡Z| wkíKjvi BwZnv‡m †i‡bmuv kãwU GKwU D‡jøL‡hvM¨ NUbv| G kZ‡K mvwnZ¨ , `k©b , wPÎwkí , fv¯‹h© , ivóª I mgvR †PZbvq m‡e©vcwi K¬vwmKvj we`¨v PP©vi c~bviv¤¢, ˆeÁvwbK g‡bve„wËi D‡b¥l BD‡iv‡c we‡kl K‡i BZvjx‡Z gvby‡li Kíbv †cÖibv I Kg©kw³i D‡ØvabB BwZnv‡m †i‡bmuv ev cybR©vMib bv‡g L¨vZ|

†i‡bmuv‡K e¨vcK A‡_© gvby‡li eyw× we‡e‡Ki weKvk ejv hvq| †i‡bmuv BD‡iv‡ci gvbyl‡K ga¨hyMxq MZvbyMwZKZvi me iKg eÜb n‡Z gyw³ w`‡q‡Q| gvby‡li g‡a¨ G‡b w`‡q‡Q ag© wbi‡cÿZv mgvb †PZbv I g~j¨‡eva|

†i‡bmuvi mgqKvj‡K 2wU ch©v‡q fvM Kiv hvq : 1 Avwj© †i‡bmuv

Ges 2 nvB †i‡bmuv

†d¬v‡i‡Ý cÂ`k kZ‡Ki cÖ_g w`‡K †i‡bmuvi m~Pbv n‡qwQ‡jv| †mLvb n‡Z BZvjxi Ab¨vb¨ ¯’v‡b I BD‡iv‡ci wewfbœ †`‡k Gi we¯Ívi nq|

·qv`k kZvãxi †k‡li w`‡K gvbeZvev` G‡m BZvjx‡Z AbycÖ‡ek K‡i| K¬vwmKvj wMÖK I †ivgvb mf¨Zvi cÖwZ AbyivM †i‡bmvm Av‡›`vj‡bi Ab¨Zg Kvib| mevi Dc‡i gvby‡li gh©v`v I gwngv Ges i³gvs‡mi gvby‡li Abyf’wZi cÖwZ Zv‡`i wQ‡jv myMwfi wek¦vm| Zv‡`i †Pv‡L gvbylB wQ‡jv m„wói †K›`ªwe›`y| GB mgq cÖvPxb kvmªmg~n e¨Kib I AjsKvi kv‡¯¿i cÖwZ GK`j cwÛZ Suy‡Kc‡o| G‡`i DËi m~wiivB cieZ©xKv‡j †i‡bmuvm hy‡Mi gvbeZvev`x bv‡g cwiwPZ nb|

gvbeZvev‡`i Avwef©v‡ei cÖv_wgK ch©v‡q ïaygvÎ cÖPxb Ávb wb‡q cov‡kvbv nw”Q‡jv| we‡kl K‡i MÖxK I †ivgvb Ávb PP©vi AbyKi‡bB Zv PjwQ‡jv| wKš‘ 1550 L„t Gi ci gvbeZvev` A‡bKUv D`vi n‡jv| G mgq weÁvb cvV Gi AšÍf©~³ nq|

cÎvK‡K gvbeZvev‡`i RbK ejv nq| wZwb cÖvPxb cvÛzwjwcmgyn Mfxi g‡bv‡hv‡Mi mv‡_ cvV Ki‡Zb| †i‡bmuv n‡”Q ïay K¬¨vwmK¨vj Ávb weÁv‡bi cybR©vMibB bq eis K¬¨vwmK¨vj AvZ¥vi c~bR©vMib|

ewnwe©k¦ †PZbv , gy`ªb †KŠk‡ji Avwe®‹vi , evwY‡R¨i cÖmviZv , aªycw` we`¨vi cybP©P©v Ges Zvi d‡j RvZxq AvZ¥ cÖZ¨‡qi D‡Øvab mewKQzB mg‡eZ Aby‡cÖibv‡ZB BD‡ivcxq ms¯‹…wZi GB beRvMib|

ivdv‡qj

nvB †i‡bmuv hy‡Mi GKRb mv_©K wkíx ivdv‡qj| gvZ…g~wZ© wP·b wZwb wQ‡jb we‡kl `ÿ| Zvi cÖ_g wPÎwe`¨vi Abykxjb P‡j wcZvi nv‡Z c‡i wkÿv¸iæ †ciæ Rx‡bvi Kv‡Q| ivdv‡q‡ji wP‡Îi ˆewkó n‡jv wbf©~j K‡¤úvwRkb|

wkíx ivdv‡qj ‡d¬v‡i‡Ý _vKvKvjxb (1505-1508) ch©šÍ wjIbv‡`©v `v wfw I gvB‡Kj G‡Ä‡jvi wkíKg©¸‡jv Abyaveb K‡ib| ZLb n‡Z Zvi wPΉkjx Av‡iv ewjô n‡q I‡V| ivdv‡q‡ji Qwe‡Z Avgiv cvB c~b© mvg¨ I m½wZ hv‡K Bs‡iRx‡Z e‡j nv‡g©vwb| GB mvg¨ I m½wZ ïay Zvi iwPZ AvK…wZ I web¨v‡m bq gvbwmKZv n‡ZI cwiùzU| Zvi Qwe‡Z ag©xq fve I ag© wbi‡cÿ wPšÍvavivi h_v_© mgš^q n‡q‡Q|

ivdv‡q‡ji Aw¼Z AvK…wZ¸wj Av`k©ev‡`i Ic‡i cÖwZwôZ Ges Zv‡Z Av‡Q gh©v`v I gn‡Ë¡i cÖKvk| wZwb wjIbv‡`©v Ges gvB‡Kj G‡Ä‡jvi m„wó‡K Abyaveb K‡i Zv‡`i wgwj‡q m„wó K‡i‡Qb Avcb ˆkjx| wkíx ivdv‡qj †d¬v‡i‡Ý gvZ…g~wZ© ev g¨v‡Wvbv Aej¤^‡b A‡bK¸wj wPÎ iPbv K‡i‡Qb| †iv‡g †cv‡ci Rb¨ wZwb f¨vwUKv‡bi KZ¸wj Kÿ wPwÎZ K‡ib| f¨vwUKv‡b Aw¼Z wPθwji g‡a¨ `¨v ¯‹zj Ad G‡_Ý Ab¨Zg|

`¨v ¯‹zj Ad G‡_Ý (1510-11, †d«‡¯‹v, f¨vwUK¨vb c¨‡jm, †ivg) :

Ô`¨v ¯‹zj Ad G‡_ÝÕ bvgK RgKv‡jv †d¨‡¯‹vwU †i‡bmuv hy‡Mi weL¨vZ wkíKg©| QwewU f¨vwUK¨vb c¨‡j‡mi wekvj GKwU Av‡P©i bxP n‡Z ïiæ n‡q‡Q| GLv‡b †`Lv hv‡”Q wkíx , `vk©wbK I Zv‡`i Qv·`i GK wekvj wgjb‡gjv| Kj‡Kvjvn‡j RvqMvwU †hb gyLi n‡q Av‡Q| QwewU‡Z weL¨vZ K‡qKRb e¨w³Z¡ i‡q‡Qb| G‡Kev†i gvSLv‡bi AvP©wUi bx‡P †`Lv hv‡”Q †cø‡Uv Avi GwióUj ¯^M© I c„w_ex wb‡q Av‡jvPbv Ki‡Qb| wmuwo‡Z Avjy_vjy f½x‡Z e‡m Av‡Qb m‡µwUm| Qwei evgw`‡K ivdv‡qj wb‡R‡K wPwÎZ K‡i‡Qb †ciæRx‡bvi mv‡_| †cvkv‡Ki fvR Ges Awfe¨w³‡Z mevB GLv‡b ¯^Zš¿| GB Qwe‡Z ivdv‡qj †`wL‡q‡Qb b‡bvgy»Zvi mgš^q, GKwU we¯Í…Z web¨vm i‡Oi D¾¡j Zviæ‡b¨ Av‡jvQvqvi ewjô c`Pvibv| f¨vwUK¨vb cÖvmv‡`i †`qv‡j AuvKv `xc¨gvb I RgKv‡jv gby‡g›Uvj ¯’vc‡Z¨i g‡a¨ †Lvjvnjc~b© GB wPÎwU 16k kZvãxi GKwU `ytmva¨ I mvnmx cwiKíbv|

gvB‡Kj G‡Ä‡jv

nvB †i‡bmuv hy‡Mi gnvb wkíx gvB‡Kj G‡Ä‡jv ebviGivwZ| Rb¥m~‡Î †d¬v‡iÝevmx gvB‡Kj G‡Ä‡jv GKvav‡i wQ‡jb fv¯‹i , wPÎwkíx , ¯’cwZ I Kwe| Ebbe¦B eQ‡ii `xN©Rxeb gvB‡Kj G‡Ä‡jv †i‡bmuv‡mi Avw` , ga¨ I AwšÍgc‡e©i ¯úk© jvf K‡iwQ‡jb Ges wZbwU c‡e©iB µg weeZ©b jÿ¨ Kiv hvq| †i‡bmuvm wkíx‡`i Rxebe„ËvšÍ iPwqZv mgmvgwqK wPÎKi I ¯’cwZ RR© fvgwi gvB‡Kj G‡Ä‡jv‡K Aci me wkíxi Ici ¯’vb w`‡q‡Qb Ges Zv‡K AvL¨vwqZ K‡i‡Qb wWfvB‡bv gvB‡Kj G‡Ä‡jv ev ¯^M© †cÖwiZ gvB‡Kj G‡Ä‡jv iƒ‡c| Zvi RxerKv‡j gvB‡Kj G‡Ä‡jvi Avmb †h KZ DuPz‡Z wQ‡jv mgmvgwqKKv‡ji RxebxKv‡ii G gšÍ‡e¨ Zv mn‡RB Dcjwä Kiv hvq|

gvB‡Kj G‡Ä‡jv wb‡R‡K cÖ_gZ Ges cÖavbZt GKRb fv¯‹i e‡j fve‡Z cQ›` Ki‡Zb †Kbbv wZwb wek¦vm Ki‡Zb GKRb fv¯‹‡ii i‡q‡Q Ògvbyl m„wó Kivi cweÎ ÿgZv|Ó 1493 mv‡j gvB‡Kj G‡Ä‡jv †iv‡g Av‡mb Ges `y‡Uv eo KvR K‡i L¨vwZ AR©b K‡ib| G¸‡jvi g‡a¨ GKwU n‡jv wc‡qZv ev g„Z wkïi Rb¨ wejvc| gvB‡Kj G‡T|R‡jv Zvi wc‡qZvq gvZv †gix‡K Ziæbx I my›`ix wn‡m‡e iƒcvwqZ K‡i‡Qb Ges †gix I wkgyi Awfe¨w³‡Z hvZbvi wPý gy‡Q w`‡q‡Qb| Nubvi †e`bvgqZv‡K iƒcvwqZ K‡i‡Qb †gixi ggZvgq fw½gvi wecix‡Z L„‡ói wb¯ú›` kix‡ii Gjv‡bv fw½gvq| GLv‡b mKiæb `„‡k¨i welv` I gylgv‡K GKB m‡½ avib Kiv n‡q‡Q|

1501 mv‡j 4 eQi a‡i wekvj gg©i cv_i †Lv`vB K‡i gvB‡Kj G‡Ä‡jv m„wó K‡ib Ô†WwfWÕ| ïay gvB‡Kj G‡Ä‡jvi Rxe‡b bq wkíKjvi BwZnv‡m GB m„wó AZzjbxq| gvB‡Kj G‡Ä‡jvi †WwfW Kvjµ‡g †d¬v‡i‡Ýi wk‡íi cÖZx‡KB cwibZ n‡q‡Q|

GwU 18 dzU DuPy Ges wK‡kvi ex‡ii cÖwZgywZ© hv bZzb cÖRvZ‡š¿i AvZ¥‡Mšie I AvZ¥wek¦v‡mi cÖwZwe¤^| gvbe kix‡i mylgvgwÛZ I †Z‡Rv`xß iƒc ˆgwíK fvlvq GLv‡b cÖKvwkZ n‡q‡Q| cyiæl kix‡ii †ckx¯úw›`Z †mŠ›`‡h©i †h cÖKvk GLv‡b N‡U‡Q Zv BwZc~‡e© ‡`Lv hvqwb|

1508 mv‡j gvB‡Kj G‡Ä‡jv †iv‡g wd‡i Avmvi ci †cvc Zv‡K f¨vwUK¨vb cÖvmv‡`i wmmwUb MxR©vq m¤ú~Y© Qv` wPÎv”Qvw`Z Kievi Av‡`k Ki‡jb| cÖ_g w`‡K gvB‡Kj G‡Ä‡jv Qwe AuvK‡Z ivwR bv n‡jI cieZ©x‡Z ivRx n‡jb Ges wKQzw`‡bi g‡a¨ nZvkv †ÿvf `~ixf’Z n‡q Zvi g‡a¨ †hb mÂvwiZ n‡jv GK Hk¦wiK †cÖibv| wmmwUb P¨v‡c‡ji Dc‡ii Puv‡`vqvi ˆ`N©¨ cÖvq 118 dzU , cÖ¯’ 46 dzU Ges D”PZv 68 dzU| fë Ges Aëvi †`qvjmn wPÎv”Qvw`Z Kiv ( cÖvq 6 nvRvi eM©dyU †Kv‡bv GKK gvby‡li c‡ÿ Kiv Agva¨ )| wKš‘ wZwb Amva¨ mvab K‡i‡Qb| gvB‡Kj G‡Ä‡jv cy‡iv Puv‡`vqv‡K K‡qKwU cÖavb fv‡M wef³ K‡i 9wU fv‡M fvM K‡i wb‡jb -

1. Ck¦i Av‡jvK I AÜKvi m„wó K‡i‡Qb|

2. Ck¦i †R¨vwZg©Ûj m„wó K‡i‡Qb|

3. Ck¦i awiÎx‡K Avkxe©v` K‡i‡Qb|

4. Ck¦i cÖ_g gvbe m„wó K‡i‡Qb|

5. C‡fi m„wó|

6. Cf KZ©„K Av`g‡K cÖjyä Kiv|

7. †bvqvi Z¨vM|

8. gnvcøveb|

9. ‡bvqvi cÖgËe|

Gqvov `yB cv‡k †QvÆ cwim‡i †cÖwiZ cyiæl I AmsL¨ Aáiv-†`e`~Z gywZ© Gu‡K‡Qb| †gvU 343wU gvbe gvbex, Aáiv, †`e`~Z mn GK mywekvj cwiKíbv 1508-1512 mvj ch©šÍ `xN© 4 eQ‡i wZwb G KvR mgvß K‡ib| 1512 mv‡ji 31†k A‡±vei wmmwUb P¨v‡cj `k©K‡`i Rb¨ Db¥y³ K‡i †`qv nq|

gvB‡Kj G‡Ä‡jvi Av‡iv D‡jøL‡hvM¨ fv¯‹‡h©i g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q Dcweó g‡mm, WvBBs †møf I evDÛ †møf|

1536 mv‡j †iv‡g emevmKv‡j gvB‡Kj G‡Ä‡jv wmmwUb P¨v‡c‡ji †`qv‡j jvmvU RvR‡g›U ev †kl wePvi `„k¨ Auv‡Kb| jv÷ RvR‡g‡›Ui wPÎixwZi mv‡_ wÎk eQi Av‡M AuvKv wPθ‡jvi †Kv‡bv wgj †bB| Qv‡`i QweMywj‡Z cÖkvwšÍ, †mŠKg© I gvayq©gwÛZ kw³i cÖKvk N‡U‡Q wKš‘ jv÷ RvR‡g›U wPÎgvjvq Db¥Ë ee©iZv AvmywiK cÖgËZv I mvwe©K aŸs‡mi GK wPÎ Aw¼Z n‡q‡Q| †kl wePv‡ii w`b cÖfz whï Avwef©~Z n‡q‡Qb wVKB , wKš‘ †cÖg I `qvi cÖwZgywZ…iƒ‡c bq| wekvj `vbevK…wZi L„ó GLv‡b Wvb nvZ D‡ËvwjZ K‡i †hb aŸsmcivqb gvbeRvwZ‡K Awfkvc w`‡”Qb , cÖej †iv‡l ¯^M© , gZ©¨ mewKQz aŸsm Ki‡Z Pv‡”Qb| †mB mgq mgMÖ BZvjx Ry‡o †h nvbvnvwb ag©xq wefvRb I hy×weMÖnRwbZ nZvkv weivR KiwQ‡jv ZviB cÖwZ Bw½Z †hb GB DËvj wPÎ|

GvB‡Kj G‡Ä‡jvi wkíPP©vi m~Pbv †i‡bmuv‡mi Avw` c‡e© , L¨vwZi kx‡l© †cŠu‡Q‡Qb †i‡bmuv‡mi ¯^Y©hy‡M , Avevi AwšÍg †i‡bmuvm wk‡íi †gvo cwieZ©‡bI wZwb cvjb K‡i‡Qb c~e©Mvgxi f~wgKv| GK A‡_© †i‡bmuv‡mi MwZcÖev‡ni m‡e©vrK…ó D`vnib wZwb|

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