- 1606 - 1669
- dramatic lighting: chiaroscuro (Italian, "Light-dark")
- etching / prints
- teacher of best Dutch artists
- late 1600's a Golden Age for Holland in trade and empire-building
- Nord Zee (North Sea)
- Netherlands (low lands)
* ship design
* trading, banking
* empire: Indonesia, South Africa, Caribbean islands (Curacao), New Amserdam.
* Holland's neighbors: Germany, France, Belgium, England.
* Royal Dutch petroleum
* Phillips Electronics (cassette)
* Heineken, Grolsch, Amstel beers
* Gouda cheese
* Dutch utopian spirit